In the Mexican War of Independence, Chihuahua hacienda owners and miners sided with the royalist forces against the independence movement. However, Mexico’s independence in 1821 forced leaders in Chihuahua to join the new country. The 1821 Plan of Iguala established the framework that consolidated the new republic; later, the region of Durango separated from Chihuahua and became an autonomous province. Chihuahua officially became a Mexican state in 1824; the state constitution was ratified the following year.

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Glaucoma: This is a painful disease in which pressure in the eye becomes abnormally high. Eyes are constantly producing and draining a fluid called aqueous humor — if the fluid doesn't drain correctly, the pressure inside the eye increases causing damage to the optic nerve and resulting in vision loss and blindness. There are two types. Primary glaucoma, which is hereditary, and secondary glaucoma which is a result of inflammation, a tumor, or injury. Glaucoma generally affects one eye first, which will be red, teary, squinty, and appear painful. A dilated pupil won't react to light, and the front of the eye will have a whitish, almost blue cloudiness. Vision loss and eventually blindness will result, sometimes even with treatment (surgery or medication, depending on the case).
Unfortunately, Chihuahuas under 2 or 3 lbs are at greater risk when it comes to health. Their bones are more fragile. There isn't enough room in their mouth for healthy teeth. They can have difficulty regulating their blood sugar and can go into hypoglycemic shock if they go too long without eating. Their internal organs are often weak and can fail suddenly – you might come downstairs one morning and find them inexplicably dead in their basket.
Reality: This is a stereotype that is biased toward generalizing and condemning an entire breed based on the actions of a few bad people. The truth is that each dog should be evaluated by his own merits and not by his breed. A corollary truth is that there truly are no bad dogs, only bad people. In his essay Troublemakers, Malcolm Gladwell discusses what Pit Bull stereotypes can teach us about the wrongness of racial profiling of both humans and dogs.
The ancestors to the Chihuahua nearly became extinct during the 1500s, when the Aztec Empire was decimated by Hernán Cortés and the Spanish colonizers. In 1850, three small dogs -- now thought to be modern versions of the Chihuahua -- were discovered in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, from which breed gets its name. Border states within the United States, such as Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, soon began to see a massive import of the dog breed. However, it wasn't until the Rhumba King, Xavier Cugat, began appearing in films carrying a Chihuahua dog in the early 1900s, that the breed gained its celebrity. Today, it has emerged as one of the most popular breeds in the United States.
Some of these tendencies can be helped through early training and socialization. Unfortunately, too many people with Chihuahuas allow them to become little tyrants, displaying manners that would not be acceptable in a larger dog. This dog needs gentle and consistent training from puppyhood on to control his nipping as well as any tendency he has to fight with other dogs. Like many small dogs, Chihuahuas aren't aware of their own size and won't hesitate to challenge a dog many times larger than themselves. Also, like many small dogs, Chihuahuas are difficult to house-train without a lot of consistency and patience.
In the 1840s, a standard beagle type was beginning to develop; the distinction between the North Country Beagle and Southern Hound had been lost, but there was still a large variation in size, character, and reliability among the emerging packs.[12] In 1856, "Stonehenge" (the pseudonym of John Henry Walsh), writing in the Manual of British Rural Sports, was still dividing beagles into four varieties: the medium beagle; the dwarf or lapdog beagle; the fox beagle (a smaller, slower version of the Foxhound); and the rough-coated or terrier beagle, which he classified as a cross between any of the other varieties and one of the Scottish terrier breeds.[13] Stonehenge also gives the start of a standard description:
Fine Beagles were imported from England to the United States, and the breed made it big in North America. Beagles have lived in the White House — Him and Her were often seen walking President Lyndon B. Johnson on the grounds of the Executive Mansion — and a comic strip dog, Snoopy, is arguably the best-known Beagle in the world. Giving Snoopy a run for his money is a Beagle named Uno, more formally known as Ch. K-Run’s Park Me in First, who in 2008 became the first Beagle to win Best in Show at the Westminster Kennel Club. Since then, Uno has traveled the United States with his buddy David Frei, serving as an ambassador for therapy dogs and Beagles everywhere.
Beagles are used in a range of research procedures: fundamental biological research, applied human medicine, applied veterinary medicine, and protection of man, animals or the environment.[70][71] Of the 8,018 dogs used in testing in the UK in 2004, 7,799 were beagles (97.3%).[72] In the UK, the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 gave special status to primates, equids, cats and dogs and in 2005 the Animal Procedures Committee (set up by the act) ruled that testing on mice was preferable, even though a greater number of individual animals were involved.[73] In 2005 beagles were involved in less than 0.3% of the total experiments on animals in the UK, but of the 7670 experiments performed on dogs 7406 involved beagles (96.6%).[70] Most dogs are bred specifically for this purpose, by companies such as Harlan. In the UK companies breeding animals for research must be licensed under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act.[73]
The first mention of the Beagle in America was in 1642. Beagles were used in the South prior to the Civil War, but these dogs bore little resemblance to their English counterparts. After the war, English imports formed the basis of the modern American Beagle. By the end of the nineteenth century, Beagles were popular competitors in both field and conformation exhibitions. But the merry little scenthound did not stop there: the Beagle continued to become one of America’s all-time favorite breeds, finding a special niche as family pet.
If you live in a cold or rainy climate, housebreaking will be especially difficult, because Chihuahuas hate both the cold and the rain. In these climates, a COVERED potty area is strongly recommended. Sometimes a doggy door is necessary so your Chihuahua can run outside the moment he feels the urge in his tiny bladder. An indoor litterbox is another option.
By 1887 the threat of extinction was on the wane: there were 18 beagle packs in England.[14] The Beagle Club was formed in 1890 and the first standard drawn up at the same time.[15] The following year the Association of Masters of Harriers and Beagles was formed. Both organisations aimed to further the best interests of the breed, and both were keen to produce a standard type of beagle.[16] By 1902, the number of packs had risen to 44.[14]
Unfortunately, it is very difficult to discuss Pit Bulls without people using their emotional response rather than looking at the reasons behind dog attacks and what can prevent them. With such large muscular dogs, it is understandable that people may be intimidated. However, we do not have the same stigma against Siberian Huskies which we appropriately consider adorable dogs, despite the fact that they contribute to the greatest number of dog attack fatalities in the parts of Canada where they are most common. Population numbers are often ignored by those who want to unfairly vilify Pit Bulls. The importance of population is pointed out in a study by the American Veterinary Medical Association which concludes that breed is ‘a poor sole predictor of aggressiveness and pit bull-type dogs are not implicated in controlled studies’[5].
Chihuahuas can usually live with other dogs and cats without problem. They get along particularly well with other Chihuahuas. It is important to socialize the Chihuahua as a puppy to prevent overt aggressiveness. Small children may regard the Chihuahua as a toy, and their teasing can cause it to snap or bite. It is preferable not to leave the Chihuahua with children under the age of 12, unless they are well taught or supervised.

All dogs have the potential to develop genetic health problems, just as all people have the potential to inherit a particular disease. Run, don’t walk, from any breeder who does not offer a health guarantee on puppies, who tells you that the breed is 100 percent healthy and has no known problems, or who tells you that her puppies are isolated from the main part of the household for health reasons. A reputable breeder will be honest and open about health problems in the breed and the incidence with which they occur in her lines. Here’s a brief rundown on what you should know.

Whether you’re planning to get your new best friend from a breeder, a pet store, or another source, don’t forget that old adage “let the buyer beware”. Disreputable breeders and facilities that deal with puppy mills can be hard to distinguish from reliable operations. There’s no 100% guaranteed way to make sure you’ll never purchase a sick puppy, but researching the breed (so you know what to expect), checking out the facility (to identify unhealthy conditions or sick animals), and asking the right questions can reduce the chances of heading into a disastrous situation. And don’t forget to ask your veterinarian, who can often refer you to a reputable breeder, breed rescue organization, or other reliable source for healthy puppies.  
Apple Head and Deer Head comes from the same breed of Chihuahuas but they are different due to their physical appearance. The Apple Head Chihuahua is known for having a round/ apple shaped head and “buggy eyes” whereas a Deer Head Chihuahua has a flatter head, thinner skull, wider eyes, and longer nose. Their physical body shape is mostly the same, except the Deer Head Chihuahua is known to have longer legs than other Chihuahuas.[29] The Deer Head Chihuahua tends to be larger in weight, where an Apple Head is more likely to keep their weight under ten pounds. Apple Head Chihuahuas are bigger in length than they are tall and have shorter necks.[30] Deer Head Chihuahuas have longer ears than Apple Heads and their head also has a slope like form. Both Apple Head and Deer Head can be a short hair or long hair. They also both come in various different colors such as brown, black, tan, or white. Chihuahuas can show traits from both Apple Head and Deer Head.[31] Deer Head Chihuahuas tend to have better health than Apple Heads, due to their longer noses. Apple Heads have a higher risk of getting respiratory issues, due to having a smaller airway. Deer Headed Chihuahuas are not allowed in The American Kennel Club (a club of purebred dogs registered in the United States) due to not meeting the standards that Apple Heads do. Deer Head Chihuahuas are not allowed because they have a longer jaw line and a slope that connects their muzzle and head, creating a 45 degree angle instead of a 90 degree angle like the Apple Head.[32] Apple Heads are allowed in AKC and meet the requirements due to having a smaller weight, having a rounder head, and also having a 90 degree angle formed by the muzzle to the forehead.[33]
Wherever you acquire your Chihuahua, make sure you have a good contract with the seller, shelter or rescue group that spells out responsibilities on both sides. Petfinder offers an Adopters Bill of Rights that helps you understand what you can consider normal and appropriate when you get a dog from a shelter. In states with “puppy lemon laws,” be sure you and the person you get the dog from both understand your rights and recourses.
Beagles bond with everyone in the family, especially children. They can be rambunctious when playing, however, so they need to be properly socialized and supervised with very young children. In addition, Beagles tend to be "mouthy," grabbing things, including your or your child's hand, with their mouths to play. They do this in fun and can be trained not to do this.

Reality: Remember: each dog is an individual and should be judged by his current personality and behavior. Certainly he may be influenced by his genetics and history, but after working with thousands of Pit Bulls, I can assert unequivocally that many (if not most) Pit Bulls of unknown parentage that have been horribly abused, neglected, and/or forced to fight still love people more than anything, and still will be loving family pets. Responsible rescues and shelters evaluate dog behavior prior to adoption, and then adopt out only those Pit Bulls that display the proper temperament toward humans.


By 1887 the threat of extinction was on the wane: there were 18 beagle packs in England.[14] The Beagle Club was formed in 1890 and the first standard drawn up at the same time.[15] The following year the Association of Masters of Harriers and Beagles was formed. Both organisations aimed to further the best interests of the breed, and both were keen to produce a standard type of beagle.[16] By 1902, the number of packs had risen to 44.[14]

Chihuahuas occur in virtually any color combination, from solid to marked or splashed,[19] allowing for colors from solid black to solid white, spotted, sabled, or a variety of other colors and patterns. Colors and patterns can combine and affect each other, resulting in a very high degree of variation. Common colors are fawn, red, cream, chocolate, brown, mixed, white, and black. No color or pattern is considered more valuable than another.


In March I adopted what was thought to be a “Chihuahua/Cairn Terrier” cross when he was 2 months old, and he’s now just over 3 months. He’s a feisty little guy, 6 lbs., who is all puppy teeth and hasn’t quite figured out potty training yet. I adopted him from our local Animal Control shelter because those animals have a harder time than our SPCA rescues being adopted, plus the price is reasonable, and their care good.
Tiny dogs often come with big health problems, and the Chihuahua is no exception. Many Chihuahuas live long, healthy lives, but conditions seen in the breed include breathing difficulties caused by a windpipe that collapses in on itself; luxating patellas; eye disorders; congestive heart disease; certain neurological conditions including hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in and around the brain), neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a condition in which fatty pigments in the brain cause the progressive loss of brain function, and atlantoaxial subluxation, a neck deformity that may require surgical correction; obesity; and dental problems caused by the small size of their mouths. 

I have po my Yorkshire terrier x Jack Russel. He’s kept the white and black coat from his mother a tiny black an white Jack Russel but has the long hair of his yorkie father. I bought him as soon as I saw him and he’s the best thing I’ve ever had. He’s eternally loyal, loving in nature, smart and of course gorgeous. Gets on with my cats and even my late pet mouse paloma and loves my partner and myself and anyone he meets is instantly his best friend. I would have never of bought a small terrier before I usually stick with staffs but I can’t explain how glad I am to have changed my mind hen I saw him.
A Maltese mixed with Terrier is generally healthy but due to its size, it is fragile. Make sure you handle and play with your Morkie in a gentle manner. It’s not built for the roughhousing that bigger dogs are fond of. This is also why this dog is best suited for a sole owner or a couple with older children. Very young children don’t understand a dog’s fragility yet and could accidentally hurt their pet Morkie.
With the mining industry growing steadily into the 17th century, Chihuahua was named the capital of the province of Nueva Vizcaya. From 1640 to 1731, the area experienced increased economic activity and, concomitantly, frequent indigenous uprisings. Tensions developed between the miners and the hacienda owners who continued to force indigenous groups into slavery.

Now, the actual amount of shedding depends on whether the coat is single or double. NOT on whether the coat is short or long, but whether it is double (outer coat plus undercoat) or single (just an outercoat). Remember we talked about single and double coats earlier. Whether a coat is short or long, the double coats shed more than the single coats. Which makes sense.


Contemporary significant pit bulls are: Weela, who helped save 32 people, 29 dogs, three horses, and one cat during Southern California's widespread flooding in 1993;[82] Popsicle was a drug detection dog for U.S. Customs and worked on the Texas—Mexico border where in 1998 he made the then biggest cocaine drug find ever made at the Hidalgo Texas Port of Entry;[83][84] Norton, who was placed in the Purina Animal Hall of Fame after he rescued his owner from a severe reaction to a spider bite;[85] Titan, who rescued his owner's wife, who would have died from an aneurysm; D-Boy, who took three bullets to save his family from an intruder with a gun;[86] Star, who, while protecting her owner, was shot by police in a video that went viral;[87] and Lilly, who lost a leg after being struck by a freight train while pulling her unconscious owner from the train tracks.[88] Daddy, Cesar Millan's right-hand dog, was famous for his mellow temperament and his ability to interact calmly with ill-mannered dogs.
In 1861, Albert Kinsey Owen envisioned a railroad link through Mexico’s Sierra Madre that would reduce the shipping route from the United States, through South America and on to the Orient. By utilizing Mexico’s deep-water port at Puerto Topolobompo, trade routes would be decreased by some 400 miles. The Kansas City Mexico Orient Railway (KCMO) was to travel from Kansas, through Chihuahua and on to the west coast of Mexico. Due to numerous setbacks–including the Mexican Revolution of 1914–the rail system took nearly 100 years to complete. Today, the railroad, known as Chihuahua al Pacífico, or El Chepe, runs from the coast into the deep chasms of Chihuahua’s Copper Canyon System.
"This is our 8-month-old, 4.5-lb. Chihuahua Tequila. We call her Tiqi as a nickname and we love her to death. She's very energetic and I'm glad to see your site lists that they should be walked daily. Lots of people think that because she's so little, she doesn't need it, but her behavior is so much better when she's been exercised. She's very social and believes that any person she sees is there for the sole benefit of petting her. She's never learned to bark, which is fine for us. She does well with other dogs and children and is very smart! We were able to teach her to sit, shake with both her right and left paws, and 'walk pretty' in one week! This is her getting ready for bed in her PJ's."
Stop them from jumping. Never allow your Maltese Terrier, or any dog for that matter, to jump on guests. Your dog can’t distinguish between dog persons and those afraid of canines. It also can’t tell if the guest is a young friend or an 80-year-old relative with a hip problem. Ask your guest to turn away from your Morkie and ignore it until it sits quietly. Only then can you pay it attention.
Great article! I hate the stigma associated with this loving, loyal, clownish breed. We adopted Kane (pictured) in December. Now, I will be honest, it's been sort of a rocky relationship between Kane and the resident cats, but that's because Kane was one-and-a-half years old when he became a part of our family. But he's learning that cats are his friend. It's a slow process but I knew that already and was prepared. Pits are just like kids - they learn from their environment. Now Kane has a loving, fun, and safe environment he can learn and grow from. I've owned many different dog breeds and by far, even with his "shady" past, Kane has showed us more love and affection than any other.
Owners of a Maltese Terrier mix should also make a concerted effort to socialize their pet, especially within its first 14 weeks of life. This will help your Morkie learn to interact with other dogs and people and ensure that it doesn’t become too attached to you. Socialization will also help curb your dog’s separation anxiety and control their excessive barking.

Dogs of either coat type may be identified as either "apple head" or "deer head" Chihuahuas, particularly in the United States. Apple heads have rounded heads, close-set eyes, and relatively short ears and legs. Deer heads have flat-topped heads, more widely set eyes, larger ears, and longer, more slender legs. Deer heads were the breed standard conformation in the mid-20th century, but current breed standards defined by registries such as the AKC specify the apple-head conformation.[13]
Great article! I hate the stigma associated with this loving, loyal, clownish breed. We adopted Kane (pictured) in December. Now, I will be honest, it's been sort of a rocky relationship between Kane and the resident cats, but that's because Kane was one-and-a-half years old when he became a part of our family. But he's learning that cats are his friend. It's a slow process but I knew that already and was prepared. Pits are just like kids - they learn from their environment. Now Kane has a loving, fun, and safe environment he can learn and grow from. I've owned many different dog breeds and by far, even with his "shady" past, Kane has showed us more love and affection than any other.
A fenced backyard is a necessity with a scenthound such as a Beagle. When outside, your Beagle should be on lead in unconfined areas, or securely confined and supervised. He's a wanderer by nature, so in case he escapes — a common occurrence with Beagles — be sure he's microchipped and wearing identification tags on his collar so he can be returned to you.
Dog breeds are usually categorized by the functional type from which the breed was developed. The basic types are companion dogs, guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs and working dogs. Breeds listed here may be traditional breeds with long histories as registered breeds, rare breeds with their own registries, or new breeds that may still be under development. In some cases, a breed's origin overlaps the boundaries of two or more countries; the dog is normally listed only in the country with which it is most commonly associated; for example, by its designated country according to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). Some dogs, such as the Löwchen, have an uncertain origin and are thus listed under several countries.
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