Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): This is a degenerative eye disorder that eventually causes blindness from the loss of photoreceptors at the back of the eye. PRA is detectable years before the dog shows any signs of blindness. Fortunately, dogs can use their other senses to compensate for blindness, and a blind dog can live a full and happy life. Just don't make it a habit to move the furniture around. Reputable breeders have their dogs' eyes certified annually by a veterinary ophthalmologist and do not breed dogs with this disease.

The history of the Chihuahua is quite controversial. According to one theory, it was originally developed in China and then brought to the Americas by Spanish traders, where it was interbred with small native dogs. Others speculate it is of South and Central American origin, descended from a small, mute dog -- the native Techichi -- which was occasionally sacrificed in Toltec religious rites. It was believed that this diminutive red dog guided the soul to the underworld after death. Thus, all Aztec families kept this dog and buried it with the deceased member of the family. (Curiously, the Toltecs and the Aztecs also fed on the Techichi.) When not used in burial rituals, however, the Aztec and Toltec priests and families took great care of the Techichis.

Robin Rock is the founder and director of Measle’s Animal Haven Pit Bull Rescue, a 501(c)(3) non-profit rescue and sanctuary consisting of foster homes in Central Ohio. Robin has been rescuing, rehabilitating and advocating for Pit Bulls for over 10 years, and she has worked with thousands of Pit Bulls. She lives with her husband Joe, their five children, adopted dogs and cats and various foster dogs.


This breed requires expert veterinary attention in areas such as birthing and dental care. Dental care is a must for these small dogs, whose jaw size makes for weaker teeth. Although daily brushing provides the best preventive measure, feeding a dental diet or using dental chews for dogs is an effective approach pet owners can take to help prevent and control accumulation of plaque and tartar to avoid consequences of severe periodontal disease.[36] The best physical characteristics of dog food to contribute to cleaning a dog's teeth would be food that is large and dense, so more time is spent chewing, which leads to the surface of the teeth being cleaned.

The first mention of the Beagle in the United States occurred in the town records of Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1642. Before the American Civil War, people in the South used Beagles, but these dogs did not resemble English Beagles. However, when the war was over, English Beagles were imported for crossbreeding and to develop the modern American Beagle we know today. The last part of the 19th century saw the emergence of Beagles as popular competitors on the field and in exhibitions. Soon thereafter, this little hound dog with the melodic howl came to be amongst the most preferred family pets in the U.S.


Beagles are pack animals, becoming very attached to their human "pack," and are well-suited to a variety of active families. They are a great choice for families with children. Singles and couples who love the outdoors also match up well with this breed, and his size and even temperament make the Beagle a great companion for active seniors who love to walk but don’t mind going at a slow pace to allow the Beagle to sniff to his heart’s content.

The terrier mix dogs that we see and know today have a long breeding history. During the early 18th century, the terriers were crossed with hunting (explains their great sense of smell) or fighting (explains their guarding nature) dogs. This was done to improve their ability to hunt (either on land or in waters) or fight. By the 19th century, dog shows began to be organized, which resulted in careful and purposeful breeding. Since then, breeders started to breed dogs mainly as pets.

While we love terriers of all kinds, there is a special place in our heart for a certain kind of mutt. There are many who will insist on a purebred, but we urge you to consider her cousin the terrier mix. Adopting a mixed breed is the most fulfilling way to bring home a new dog. Whether it is from an animal shelter or rescue organization, you are giving a pooch a new chance at life. Many shelter animals are scheduled to be euthanized, so you just might be saving a life when your bring home one of these animals.


Dogs of either coat type may be identified as either "apple head" or "deer head" Chihuahuas, particularly in the United States. Apple heads have rounded heads, close-set eyes, and relatively short ears and legs. Deer heads have flat-topped heads, more widely set eyes, larger ears, and longer, more slender legs. Deer heads were the breed standard conformation in the mid-20th century, but current breed standards defined by registries such as the AKC specify the apple-head conformation.[13]
Beagles were in the United States by the 1840s at the latest, but the first dogs were imported strictly for hunting and were of variable quality. Since Honeywood had only started breeding in the 1830s, it is unlikely these dogs were representative of the modern breed and the description of them as looking like straight-legged Dachshunds with weak heads has little resemblance to the standard. Serious attempts at establishing a quality bloodline began in the early 1870s when General Richard Rowett from Illinois imported some dogs from England and began breeding. Rowett's Beagles are believed to have formed the models for the first American standard, drawn up by Rowett, L. H. Twadell, and Norman Ellmore in 1887.[17] The beagle was accepted as a breed by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1885.[18] In the 20th century the breed has spread worldwide.

The longcoated Chihuahua is the product of a recessive gene, meaning a puppy must have the gene from both parents for the long coat to express itself, so he isn’t seen in litters as frequently as the smooth. The long, soft coat is flat or slightly curly, and the dog has a ruff around the neck, fringed ears, feathering on the legs and a plumed tail. The hair on the rest of the body is almost as smooth as that on the smooth Chihuahua. Longcoated Chihuahuas are beautiful, and they’re easy to groom, but they do shed seasonally.
Known to be among the most friendly of the hound breeds, the Beagle was developed to be a pack hunter. The best qualities in the Beagle are its fondness for exploring the outdoors and its enthusiasm for trailing. This independent breed barks, howls, and sometimes runs off on a trail on its own. Because it is also an incredibly tolerant, calm and adventurously playful dog, the Beagle also makes a perfect pet for families with children.
For thousands of years dogs have been bred. From time to time humans have done inbreeding even from their own ancestral lines and also by mixing them from various lines. Over the centuries the whole breeding process is continuing until the present day, resulting in a huge genetically diversity of all types of dogs, breeds and hybrids, no other mammal can present. Furthermore no speciation developed, despite the appearance of a wide variation of dogs no other animal could obtain. Just compare the extreme difference between a Chihuahua and a Great Dane.
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