In the Mexican War of Independence, Chihuahua hacienda owners and miners sided with the royalist forces against the independence movement. However, Mexico’s independence in 1821 forced leaders in Chihuahua to join the new country. The 1821 Plan of Iguala established the framework that consolidated the new republic; later, the region of Durango separated from Chihuahua and became an autonomous province. Chihuahua officially became a Mexican state in 1824; the state constitution was ratified the following year.
The Beagle today is an easy-going dog with a strong hunting instinct. The breed standard says he can be any hound color, including tricolor, red and white, and lemon. The National Beagle Club offers information as well as breeder and rescue referral. The United Beagle Gundog Federation is the place to go if you’re interested in hunting or field trialing your Beagle.
Pit bulls were created by crossbreeding bulldogs and terriers to produce a dog that combined the strength of the bulldog with the gameness and agility of the terrier.[6] In the United Kingdom, these dogs were used in blood sports such as bull-baiting and bear-baiting. These blood sports were officially eliminated in 1835, as Britain began to introduce animal welfare laws. Since dogfights were cheaper to organize and far easier to conceal from the law than bull- or bear-baits, blood sport proponents turned to pitting their dogs against each other instead.[5] Dog fighting was used as both a blood sport (often involving gambling) and a way to continue to test the quality of their stock. For decades afterwards, dog fighting took place clandestinely in small areas of Britain and America. In the early 20th century, pit bulls were used as catch dogs in America for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt and drive livestock, and as family companions.[6] Some have been selectively bred for their fighting prowess.[8][9]

Prone to rheumatism, slipped stifle, colds and gum problems. Also corneal dryness and secondary glaucoma, due to their protruding eyes. Gains weight easily. Take caution around toxic products such as chocolate or fertilizer. This is a very small breed and it will not take much to poison them. Chihuahuas are often born via cesarean section because puppies are born with relatively large heads. Susceptible to fractures and other accidents in puppyhood. Some Chihuahuas have a molera, an unclosed section of the skull which can remain open throughout life. This makes the dog prone to injury. Has a tendency to wheeze and snore because of their small, short muzzles. Prone to stress, caused by the owners tendency to treat them like little babies. All dogs, even tiny ones, need to feel their owners are strong-minded beings able to handle the entire pack.
Some of these tendencies can be helped through early training and socialization. Unfortunately, too many people with Chihuahuas allow them to become little tyrants, displaying manners that would not be acceptable in a larger dog. This dog needs gentle and consistent training from puppyhood on to control his nipping as well as any tendency he has to fight with other dogs. Like many small dogs, Chihuahuas aren't aware of their own size and won't hesitate to challenge a dog many times larger than themselves. Also, like many small dogs, Chihuahuas are difficult to house-train without a lot of consistency and patience.
In a 2000 review by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which examines data from both media reports and from the Humane Society of the United States, pit bull-type dogs were identified in approximately one-third of dog bite-related fatalities in the United States between 1981 and 1992. However, the review notes that studies on dog bite-related fatalities which collect information by surveying news reports are subject to potential errors, as some fatal attacks may not have been reported, a study might not find all relevant news reports, and the dog breed might be misidentified.[42] The AVMA has also noted fundamental problems with tracking breed in dog bite-related fatalities.[38] In a 2013 study of 256 fatalities in the United States from 2000 to 2009, the AVMA determined that valid breed determination was possible for only 17.6% of cases.[43]

As humans became more sophisticated, so did their dogs. Eventually, there emerged specific breeds of dogs, custom-bred to suit the breeders’ local needs and circumstances. The Greyhound, for instance, was the foundation type for the immense Irish Wolfhound and the dainty Italian Greyhound. All three have a distinct family resemblance, but you’d never mistake one for another.
Pit bulls were created by crossbreeding bulldogs and terriers to produce a dog that combined the strength of the bulldog with the gameness and agility of the terrier.[6] In the United Kingdom, these dogs were used in blood sports such as bull-baiting and bear-baiting. These blood sports were officially eliminated in 1835, as Britain began to introduce animal welfare laws. Since dogfights were cheaper to organize and far easier to conceal from the law than bull- or bear-baits, blood sport proponents turned to pitting their dogs against each other instead.[5] Dog fighting was used as both a blood sport (often involving gambling) and a way to continue to test the quality of their stock. For decades afterwards, dog fighting took place clandestinely in small areas of Britain and America. In the early 20th century, pit bulls were used as catch dogs in America for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt and drive livestock, and as family companions.[6] Some have been selectively bred for their fighting prowess.[8][9]
Dog effigy pots dating to around 1325 AD discovered in Georgia and Tennessee also appear to represent the Chihuahua.[6] In 1850, a pot featuring the Chihuahua-like dogs was unearthed in old ruins at Casas Grandes in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, which dates from 1100–1300 AD showing the long history of such dogs at this site,[5] although most artifacts relating to its existence are found around Mexico City. It has been argued that these pots arrived with survivors from the Casas Grandes site in Chihuahua, Mexico, after it was attacked and destroyed around 1340 AD.

The Terrier Maltese mix is an affectionate dog that loves people and they love it back. This hybrid has a winning personality but can also be bullheaded. Someone with experience with small breeds is ideal but a Morkie can actually be good even with first-time dog owners. They are good companions for singles, seniors, and families with older children.


The first mention of the Beagle in America was in 1642. Beagles were used in the South prior to the Civil War, but these dogs bore little resemblance to their English counterparts. After the war, English imports formed the basis of the modern American Beagle. By the end of the nineteenth century, Beagles were popular competitors in both field and conformation exhibitions. But the merry little scenthound did not stop there: the Beagle continued to become one of America’s all-time favorite breeds, finding a special niche as family pet.
The tricolored beagle—white with large black areas and light brown shading—is the most common. Tricolored beagles occur in a number of shades, from the "Classic Tri" with a jet black saddle (also known as "Blackback"), to the "Dark Tri" (where faint brown markings are intermingled with more prominent black markings), to the "Faded Tri" (where faint black markings are intermingled with more prominent brown markings). Some tricolored dogs have a broken pattern, sometimes referred to as pied. These dogs have mostly white coats with patches of black and brown hair. Tricolor beagles are almost always born black and white. The white areas are typically set by eight weeks, but the black areas may fade to brown as the puppy matures. (The brown may take between one and two years to fully develop.) Some beagles gradually change color during their lives, and may lose their black markings entirely.
"Blondie, our Chihuahua is 9 years old and has been riding with us for 5 of those years. Blondie has ridden over 1000 miles. We take her with us on long trips. If we stop to eat she has a bag she sits in quietly while we eat (of course food is snuck into the bag for her). She is the most amazing dog I have ever owned. She loves to be with us wherever we go. I make leather riding pouches and leather outfits for dogs. I sell them at motorcycle rallies and she is a great model. The picture I'm sending in was taken by our friend we were on our way to ride the Bonnie and Clyde ride in Louisiana. My dog is a balanced dog. In fact, we watch Cesar on a regular basis. On one of his episodes he was helping a couple in California get their dog, a Jack Russell, to ride. In the beginning of that episode the dog is wearing one of my outfits that was purchased on eBay. By the way, I am a dog groomer so she gets to go to work with me every day."

The ancestors to the Chihuahua nearly became extinct during the 1500s, when the Aztec Empire was decimated by Hernán Cortés and the Spanish colonizers. In 1850, three small dogs -- now thought to be modern versions of the Chihuahua -- were discovered in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, from which breed gets its name. Border states within the United States, such as Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, soon began to see a massive import of the dog breed. However, it wasn't until the Rhumba King, Xavier Cugat, began appearing in films carrying a Chihuahua dog in the early 1900s, that the breed gained its celebrity. Today, it has emerged as one of the most popular breeds in the United States.
Beagles are the dog breed most often used in animal testing, due to their size and passive nature. In the United States, as many as 65,000 beagles are used every year for medical, cosmetic, beauty, and other chemical tests. They are purpose bred and live their lives in cages undergoing experiments.[68] The Rescue + Freedom Project (formerly Beagle Freedom Project) has successfully advocated for beagles to be released from labs. This organization has freed hundreds of animals.[69]
Casas Grandes, located in the northern portion of the state, is the most important archaeological zone in Chihuahua. The great Puebloan community of Paquime was the center of the Casas Grandes culture for over 300 years, reaching the peak of its power in the 13th century. It is believed that the population of the city reached 10,000, with most inhabitants living in five- and six-story “apartment” buildings. Featuring small T-shaped doors, a ceremonial area, temple structures, a ball court, ceremonial pyramids and a cross-shaped mound with perfect astronomical orientation, the Paquime ruins spark wonder and admiration.
In a 2000 review by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which examines data from both media reports and from the Humane Society of the United States, pit bull-type dogs were identified in approximately one-third of dog bite-related fatalities in the United States between 1981 and 1992. However, the review notes that studies on dog bite-related fatalities which collect information by surveying news reports are subject to potential errors, as some fatal attacks may not have been reported, a study might not find all relevant news reports, and the dog breed might be misidentified.[42] The AVMA has also noted fundamental problems with tracking breed in dog bite-related fatalities.[38] In a 2013 study of 256 fatalities in the United States from 2000 to 2009, the AVMA determined that valid breed determination was possible for only 17.6% of cases.[43]

The merle coat pattern, which appears mottled, is not traditionally considered part of the breed standard. In May 2007, The Kennel Club decided not to register puppies with this coloration due to the health risks associated with the responsible gene, and in December of that year, formally amended its breed standard to disqualify merle dogs.[20] The Fédération Cynologique Internationale, which represents the major kennel clubs of 84 countries, also disqualified merle.[16] Other countries' kennel clubs, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Germany, have also disqualified merle. However, in May 2008, the Chihuahua Club of America voted that merles would not be disqualified in the United States, and would be fully registrable and able to compete in AKC events. Opponents of merle recognition suspect the coloration came about by modern crossbreeding with other dogs and not by natural genetic drift.[21][citation needed]


A disease that seems to be increasing among Chihuahuas is GME, which stands for Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis. It is becoming more frequent among the apple head Chis. It is, at this time, a very poorly understood central nervous system disease that suddenly strikes without much warning. It comes in three types: focal (lesions in the brain or spine); multifocal (lesions in both brain and spine as well as eyes); and optical (causing blindness. There are several current methods of treating it currently and which continue to be updated as more research is done. While there are methods of controlling it in those dogs who survive the first two weeks, unfortunately, there is no true cure. It can go into remission, sometimes for years, but can always resurface. The medications, testing, etc. in the beginning in order to properly diagnose, the cost is in the thousands and many, many more thousands will need to be spent over the remaining years of the dog's life. While GME occurs in many other breeds (generally the toy breeds though there are some others, there is a tremendous number of Chihuahuas with it. Interestingly, deer head Chihuahua's do not tend to be prone to GME, only the apple-head type.


Just like Apple Head and Deer Head Chihuahuas, Teacup Chihuahuas are from the same breed but have a different appearance. A Teacup Chihuahua on average doesn’t weigh more than four pounds. In a household they may need a little more looking after due to their small size. Teacup Chihuahuas can have either short or long hair. Although a Teacup is much smaller in size, they still have the same confident and energetic personality as a full sized Chihuahua. It is also very risky for Teacup Chihuahuas to have puppies due to their size. It can cause many complications and put their life at risk. [34] Compared to the typical lifespan of a Chihuahua a Teacup's lifespan tends to be much shorter due to the health issues they are more prone to have because of their small size.[35]

There is no pit bull type or breed. It is that mislabeling that jas caused BSL and the issues in today's society. Pit bull is short for American pit bull terrier. Nothing else is a pit bull. They are other breeds bred for other purposes. Most today are BBM bull breed mixes. APBT are very athletic high energy dogs and are dog aggressive but not human aggressive. Many of these other dogs are the ones who are human aggressive and give pit bulls a bad name because of mislabeling. I have worked with APBT nad other bull breeds around 25 yrs and bred heritage apbt for 20.
Look for a breeder who is a member in good standing of the Chihuahua Club of America and who has agreed to abide by the club's code of ethics. It specifies that its members should evaluate all breeding stock for hereditary faults, never sell dogs to pet stores, and take back Chihuahuas they have bred in the event that the buyer cannot keep them. The CCA lists member breeders on its website, but it’s still important to interview them before buying.
"We got Stoli (right) 3 years ago when we were in college back east at UNC. The first picture is her at 7 weeks old. She is a short-coat fawn with black sable. As she grew older the black sable faded and she is almost completely fawn except for the black stripe on her tail. We had to work hard to keep her from getting "small dog syndrome, " which makes many toy breeds yappy and disliked by strangers. She bonded with many friends and family members and I took her to class with me and on the bus. I even took her babysitting with me and she now LOVES kids which is not a common trait in small dogs. Because of our hard work to treat her like a dog and not a fragile little toy she is very well behaved and not terrified of people and new surroundings. She also knows over 15 tricks and loves to perform! Stoli is 3.8 pounds and almost 3 years old. Just over a month ago we decided to get a playmate for Stoli that was her own size. This first picture is Roxi at 8 weeks and 15 ounces. She is a longhaired Chihuahua and should get up to 3-3.5 pounds as an adult. Her full long hair will not mature until she is around 1 1/2 years old, and in the meantime she will go through "puppy uglies" which is the awkward teenager stage for long-coated breeds between their puppy and adult coats. Her color is technically black and tan with a partial white collar and white feet. She also has merle markings that give the spotted blue and black pattern to her coat. The merle gene leeches out the most of the color from the black part of her coat leaving the grey/blue areas. It has also affected her eye color, which is marbled blue and brown. The merle Chihuahua is banned from some organizations around the world, but the AKC still allows for it in the show ring. The reason for this is possible health concerns associated with the gene. But we love little Roxi to death and she is completely healthy and growing fast! Walking around town with these two we get stopped constantly to be asked what kind of dogs they are and to tell us how cute they are. Recently we have been hearing kids yell out "Mommy look they are from Beverly Hills!" due to the new Disney movie."
In a 2000 review by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which examines data from both media reports and from the Humane Society of the United States, pit bull-type dogs were identified in approximately one-third of dog bite-related fatalities in the United States between 1981 and 1992. However, the review notes that studies on dog bite-related fatalities which collect information by surveying news reports are subject to potential errors, as some fatal attacks may not have been reported, a study might not find all relevant news reports, and the dog breed might be misidentified.[42] The AVMA has also noted fundamental problems with tracking breed in dog bite-related fatalities.[38] In a 2013 study of 256 fatalities in the United States from 2000 to 2009, the AVMA determined that valid breed determination was possible for only 17.6% of cases.[43]

The Beagle is a social dog that is particularly well suited to the company of humans and other dogs alike. It also needs to spend equal time in the yard as it does in the house. Regular exercise, such as a romp at the park or in a spacious yard area, along with regular leash-led walks are great outdoor activities for the Beagle. This breed can withstand temperate climates and live outdoors most seasons, as long as it has bedding and an enclosed, warm shelter. With its short, close coat, the Beagle does not require extensive grooming. An occasional brushing to encourage turnover of hair, and to minimize hair buildup in the house is all that is needed to keep your Beagle looking healthy and vibrant.
Dog effigy pots dating to around 1325 AD discovered in Georgia and Tennessee also appear to represent the Chihuahua.[6] In 1850, a pot featuring the Chihuahua-like dogs was unearthed in old ruins at Casas Grandes in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, which dates from 1100–1300 AD showing the long history of such dogs at this site,[5] although most artifacts relating to its existence are found around Mexico City. It has been argued that these pots arrived with survivors from the Casas Grandes site in Chihuahua, Mexico, after it was attacked and destroyed around 1340 AD.
The Chihuahua is a lively dog that nonetheless can get his exercise running from room to room indoors. He enjoys exploring the yard or going for a short walk on leash and especially enjoys accompanying his owner on outings. He hates the cold and seeks out warmth. Coat care for the smooth is minimal. Care of the long coat entails brushing two to three times a week.

When raised with the proper training and socialization, the American Pit Bull Terrier makes an excellent companion for children. He is loving and gentle with people and often makes a lousy guard dog because of his tail-wagging eagerness to greet the person at the door. American Pit Bull Terriers are devoted and loyal to their family and will, if necessary, defend them to the death.
Not every Beagle visit to the vet is for a genetic problem. The Beagle’s long, floppy ears are prone to chronic ear infections. Left untreated, such infections can cause permanent damage to the ear canal and even destroy your dog's hearing. Checking ears often and seeing the veterinarian at the first whiff of a problem combined with good follow-through will keep a Beagle’s ears from being an expensive and painful problem.
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